Early 1970s - Canada: George Manuel connects with Indigenous Peoples around the world

Manuel then travels to New Zealand and throughout the Pacific, fostering a powerful new vision of the ‘fourth world, ‘ inspiring Indigenous activism and transnational connections.

The ‘fourth world’ is described in¬†Manuel and Michael Posluns’ book titled ‘The Fourth World: An Indian Reality.”

According to Manuel and Poslun, Indigenous nations living within colonial-nation states inhabit the ‘fourth world,’ an oppressive space wherein Indigenous nations must fight for the right to exist.

The concept of the fourth world is not limited to a particular country and therefore bridges parallels between Indigenous peoples and Indigenous struggles worldwide.