1970 - Canada: George Manuel connects with Indigenous Peoples around the world

Manuel then travels to New Zealand and throughout the Pacific fostering a powerful new vision of the ‘fourth world’, inspiring Indigenous activism and transnational connections.

The ‘fourth world’ is described in Manuel and Michael Posluns’ book titled ‘The Fourth World: An Indian Reality.” According to Manuel and Poslun, Indigenous nations living within colonial-nation states like Canada and the US inhabit the ‘fourth world,’ an oppressive space where Indigenous nations must fight for the right to exist. The concept of the fourth world is not limited to a particular country and connects Indigenous peoples and Indigenous struggles worldwide.

The concept of the fourth world is exemplified by a speech given by Manuel in 1971, in which proclaims “Be proud that you are dark. We have every reason to be as proud as the white man. And maybe more … Just as much as the Māoris and the Aborigines, the Indian people in Canada are dark people in a White Commonwealth.” This quote shows that Manuel was inspired by his travels and was thinking about similarities between Indigenous peoples around the world.

Image source: Canada Post